17 Key Difference Between Meiosis and Mitosis

Difference Between Meiosis and Mitosis

What is Cell Division?

Cell division is a basic process in all living organisms involving the separation of the genetic material into two or more daughter cells. Thus, cell division is an essentially biological process involved in the growth, replenishment (repair), and reproduction of various organisms. It is part of the organism’s cell cycle.

What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is the process of cell division by which the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cells are divided equally to give rise to two genetically identical daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes. The main purpose of mitosis is for growth and to replace worn-out cells. 

What is Meiosis?
Meiosis is a special type of cell division that produces four haploid cells from a diploid parent cell containing half the original amount of genetic information. Meiosis produces our sex cells or gametes– Sperm in males, eggs in females.
Mitosis and meiosis difference
Fig: Mitosis and meiosis difference

Difference between Meiosis and Mitosis:

Some useful differences between mitosis and meiosis have listed in the below table:
SL No.
Differential factors
Mitosis
Meiosis
01
Site
Occur in somatic cell ( body cell)
Occur only in sex cell (gametes)
02
Formation of daughter cell
The Diploid number of Identical two daughter cell those contain the same number of chromosomes.
The Haploid number of four daughter cells contains one-half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
03
Pairing
Not occur
Occur
04
Type
No, any type
Two types occur
·         Meiosis -I
·         Meiosis – II
05
Phase
One phase
Two different phase
06
Number of division
One  and equational  division
Two and reductional division
07
Subdivision
No subdivision present in the prophase
Subdivision present in prophase e.g.
  •  Leptotene,
  •  Zygotene,
  •  Pachytene,
  •  Diplotene,
  •  Diagnosis.
08
Cytokinesis (the division of the cytoplasm)
Occurs at the end of telophase
Happens at the end of telophase I and telophase II.
09
Chromosome
Not visible
Visible
10
Tetrad Formation
Does not occur
Occur In prophase
11
Chiasmata and crossing over
No formation of chiasmata and crossing over not occur
Formation of chaismata and crossing over occurs (prophase I)
12
Genetic materials
No exchange of genetic materials
Random exchange of genetic material occurs
13
Remains the same
Reduced by half
14
Synapsis
No
Yes – from bivalents
15
Duration
Short
Long
16
Role in the animal body
Produce a cell for growth and repair
Produce gametes and assure genetic  diversity in sexual  reproduction
17
Cell cycle
Occurs throughout the life cycle
In humans, completes after sexual maturity

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