What are Lysosomes?
Number of lysosome presents in a cell-
There are 50 to 1,000 lysosomes per mammalian cell, but a single large lysosome is called the vacuole in fungi and plants.
Different Lysosomal Enzymes and Their Functions:
Lysosome contains so many digestive enzymes and they digest nutrient molecules. They contain about 45 enzymes that are grouped into six main categories:
Nucleases are important enzymes that hydrolyze nucleic acids.
Proteases include enzymes like collagenase and peptidases that convert protein into amino acids.
Glycosidases convert polysaccharides into monosaccharides. For instance, they convert lactose into glucose and galactose.
Phosphatases are enzymes that act on organic phosphate compounds to release phosphate.
Lipases that act on lipids to produce acids and alcohol.
Sulphatases are enzymes that act on organic compounds to release sulfates.
Main Functions of Lysosomes:
All the functions of the lysosome have pointed out in the following:
- The main function of lysosome is to help with cell metabolism by ingesting and dissolving unwanted parts of the cell, cell debris, or foreign substances that have entered the cell.
- Acts as autophagic vesicles of the cell.
- Acts as scavengers of the cell.
- The digestive enzymes of their acidic interior break down large structures and molecules into simple components, and they then return the products to the cell for further use or disposal.
- Lysosomal enzymes are synthesized by Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).
- The enzymes are passed on to the Golgi apparatus where the lysosome Is produced.
- Lysosome use the acid hydrolases from the endoplasmic reticulum to digest complex proteins and organelles that are no longer needed.
- The lysosome essentially acts as the cell’s digestive system.