Pharyngitis Types | Pharyngitis Symptoms| Pharyngitis Management Guidelines

What is Pharyngitis Disease?

Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat which is known as the pharynx. Pharyngitis normally outcomes in fever and a sore throat. Symptoms of pharyngitis disease may include a cough, a runny nose, headache, and a hoarse voice. Symptoms usually last for three to five days. Complications can include sinusitis and acute otitis media. This type of disease is generally a type of respiratory tract infection. 
Pharyngitis disease management guidelines
Fig: Pharyngitis disease management guidelines
Most of the cases are caused by a viral infection. Strep throat, a bacterial infection is a reason in about 10% of adults and 25% of children. Rare causes include other bacteria i.e. fungus, gonorrhea, irritants such as smoke, allergies, and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Specific testing is not recommended in people who have clear symptoms of a viral infection such as the cold. Else a throat swab or a rapid antigen detection test (RAPD) is recommended. The other conditions that can produce the same symptoms include thyroiditis, epiglottitis, retropharyngeal abscess, and occasionally heart disease.

Types of Pharyngitis Disease:

There are three types of pharyngitis. Those are explained below:

1. Non-exudative Pharyngitis:
It does not produce fluids like pus. This type of pharyngitis disease is the most common which is generally caused by viruses.

2. Exudative Pharyngitis:
It produces a body fluid like pus. This usually suggests a bacterial cause.

3. Ulcerative Pharyngitis:
Ulcerative pharyngitis disease which is mainly caused by bacteria is infrequently seen but is considered to be a medical emergency.

Clinical Features of Pharyngitis Disease:

There are two types of clinical features of pharyngitis. One is bacterial Pharyngitis and another one is viral pharyngitis.

Bacterial Pharyngitis:
It includes- 

  1. Erythema,
  2. Bilateral tonsillar hypertrophy,
  3. Vomiting,
  4. Dysphagia due to a sore throat,
  5. Whitish exudate,
  6. A headache,
  7. Abdominal discomfort,
  8. Fever.
Viral Pharyngitis:
It includes- 
  1. Tenderness of cervical lymph glands,
  2. Nonexudative erythema of pharynx,
  3. Anorexia,
  4. A cough,
  5. Nasal obstruction,
  6. Fever,
  7. Malaise,
  8. Hoarseness of voice,
  9. Nasal discharge.
Symptoms of Pharyngitis Disease:

Some major symptoms of pharyngitis are listed below: 

  1. A runny nose,
  2. A cough,
  3. A headache,
  4. Hoarse voice.
Complications of Pharyngitis Disease:

Complications of pharyngitis have pointed out in the following: 

  1. Mastoiditis,
  2. Otitis media,
  3. Peritonsillar abscess (quinsy),
  4. Mesenteric adenitis,
  5. Acute glomerulonephritis,
  6. Chronic ulcer in the throat,
  7. Sinusitis,
  8. Meningitis,
  9. Rheumatic fever.
Nursing Management of Pharyngitis Disease:

There some key nursing management for pharyngitis which is presented below: 

  1. Warm saline gargles (in older children),
  2. Analgesics,
  3. Antitussive,
  4. Antipyretics,
  5. Steam inhalation,
  6. Extra fluid intake,
  7. Liquid or soil diet,
  8. Oral hygiene,
  9. Nasal decongestant and anti-allergic may be needed for some children.
  10. Streptococcal pharyngitis should be treated with antibiotics (penicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and cephalosporin) for 10-15 days with bed rest.

More questions related to this article:

  1. What do you mean by pharyngitis?
  2. What are the clinical features of pharyngitis?
  3. What are the types of pharyngitis?
  4. Describe the classification of pharyngitis.
  5. What are the symptoms of pharyngitis?
  6. What are the complications of pharyngitis?
  7. Describe the nursing management for pharyngitis.

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